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Library Instruction: Bloom's Taxonomy

What is Bloom's Taxonomy?

In 1956, Bloom's Taxonomy for Education Objectives was created as a framework for classifying statements of what we intend students to learn.  Revised in 2001, the Taxonomy has six categories.  

  • Remember
  • Understand
  • Apply
  • Analyze
  • Evaluate
  • Create

Learning outcomes should span learning across the taxonomy, not just focus on the "remember" and "understand" categories.  

Blooms Taxonomy Verbs for Writing Learning Outcomes

Category: 

Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create

Definition: 

Recall basic facts and concepts Explain ideas and concepts Use information in new situations Draw connections among ideas Justify a stand or decision Produce a new or original work 

Verbs: 

  • list
  • recite
  • outline
  • name
  • match
  • quote
  • recall
  • identify
  • label
  • recognize
 
  • describe
  • explain
  • paraphrase
  • restate
  • give example(s)
  • summarize
  • contrast
  • compare
  • interpret
  • discuss
  • classify
  • infer
  • execute
  • implement
  • adapt
  • apply
  • complete
  • demonstrate
  • determine
  • discover
  • employ
  • examine
  • illustrate
  • investigate
  • modify
  • practice
  • use
  • solve
  • model
  • perform 
  • classify
  • breakdown
  • differentiate
  • organize
  • analyze
  • criticize
  • simplify
  • diagram 
  • critique
  • choose
  • support
  • relate
  • determine
  • defend
  • judge
  • compare
  • contrast
  • argue
  • justify
  • support
  • convince
  • select
  • evaluate
  • design
  • formulate
  • generate
  • plan
  • produce
  • invent
  • create
  • compose
  • develop
  • assemble
  • compile
  • construct 

 

Taxonomy pyramid

Bloom's taxonomy pyramid

Jessica Shabatura (2018). Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to write effective learning objectives. https://tips.uark.edu/using-blooms-taxonomy/

Additional Resources on Bloom's Taxonomy

Anderson, L., Krathwohl, D., & Bloom, B. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing : a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives (Complete ed.). New York: Longman.

Krathwohl, D. (2002). A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 212-218. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1477405

Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching (2015). Blooms Taxonomy.  Retrieved from https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/