Together, the Pottery Neolithic (around 6,400 and 4,500 BCE) and the Chalcolithic period (around 4,500 and 3,200 BCE) were a period of great social, economic, and political upheaval. PN saw the migration of the first people from the mountains to the low-elevation alluvial flatland of Mesopotamia. In PN, particularly in the Halaf culture, we see the beginning of life in larger towns, larger scale and more intensive agricultural production and an increase in the number of people, all of which marked the beginning of social complexity, notably a specialized division of labor and social stratification. Social complexity reached its apex in the first city in the Chalcolithic period, most notably al-Warqa of Uruk culture. It is in these periods that we see the emergence of large-scale manufacture of hand-made and wheel-made pottery as a new technological innovation.
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