Collapse of the Uruk cities left a vacuum in Mesopotamia. But that was soon filled by the first “civilizations” or city-states and empires of the world. In Mesopotamia these appeared in the Early Bronze Age (about 3,200–2,100 BCE). The main features of this period include the development of elaborate writing systems under the rule of multiple Sumerian city-states in southern Mesopotamia in the Early Dynastic Period. These city states, however, were soon unified by Sargon into the Akkadian Empire, the most extensive polity seen so far. The fall of Akkad, caused by a major and long-term drought, opened the door for the migration of Amorites to Mesopotamia as well as the establishment of the Third Dynasty of Ur or the Neo-Sumerian Empire, whose “royal cemetery” demonstrates the apex of social complexity and social stratification in the Near East. At the same time, the genesis of a new empire, the Elamites, was planted in southwestern Iran.
Adamo, Nasrat, and Nadhir Al-Ansari
2020 The Sumerians and the Akkadians : The Forerunners of the First Civilization (2900-2003BC). Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering 10(3):17–39.
Alden, John R., Dennis Heskel, Richard Hodges, Gregory A. Johnson, Philip L. Kohl, Manfred Korfmann, C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, A. Le Brun, F. Vallat, Louis D. Levine, Ronald T. Marchese, James Mellaart, Hans J. Nissen, Jim G. Shaffer, and Trevor Watkins
1982 Trade and Politics in Proto-Elamite Iran [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology 23(6):613–640. DOI:10.1086/202914.
2010 The Rise of the Highland Elamite State in Southwestern Iran: “Enclosed” or Enclosing Nomadism? Current Anthropology 51(3):353–383. DOI:10.1086/652437.
2004 Tracing the Earliest Recorded Concepts of International Law. The Early Dynastic Period in Southern Mesopotamia. Journal of the History of International Law 6(2):153–172. DOI:10.1163/1571805042782145.
Asher-Greve, Julia M.
2013 Women and Agency: A Survey From Late Uruk to the End of Ur III. In The Sumerian World, pp. 359–378. Routledge, Abingdon.
Cookson, Evangeline, Daniel J. Hill, and Dan Lawrence
2019 Impacts of long term climate change during the collapse of the Akkadian Empire. Journal of Archaeological Science 106:1–9. DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2019.03.009.
Couto-Ferreira, M. Erica
2017 “Let me be your canal”: some thoughts on agricultural landscape and female bodies in Sumero-Akkadian source. In The First Ninety Years: A Sumerian Celebration in Honor of Miguel Civil, edited by Lluís Feliu, Fumi Karahashi, and Gonzalo Rubio, pp. 54–69. Studies in ancient Near Eastern records volume 12. De Gruyter, Boston ; Berlin.
Englund, Robert K.
2015 Hard Work-Where Will It Get You? Labor Management in Ur III Mesopotamia. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. DOI:10.1086/373514, accessed August 26, 2020.
1991 Of Priestesses, Princes and Poor Relations: The Dead in the Royal Cemetery of Ur. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 1(2):171–189.
2014 The Value of Wool in Early Bronze Age Mesopotami. On the Control. In Wool Economy in the Ancient Near East, edited by Catherine Breniquet and Cecile Michel, pp. 94–114. Oxbow Books, Oxford.