The Iron Age in the Levant is dominated by the emergence of biblical archaeology, and the confluence of history, religion, myth, politics, and national identity with politics. The history begins when the decentralized confederacy of the “Twelve Tribes” were replaced by the United Monarchy of Israel under the rule of Kings Saul, David, and Solomon. Following the succession of Solomon’s son to power, the two kingdoms then split into the Kingdom of Judah to the south, and the Kingdom of Israel to the north. Although the nature and history of these two kingdoms is questioned; archaeologists and historians agree that the region came under the control of Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires, the later of whom destroyed the Kingdom of Judah. This region was largely surrounded by Philistine city-states; the ancestors of modern Palestinians. To the north of these territories, present-day Lebanon was dominated by Phoenicians.
Qumran Caves (Palestine)
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